What is Rhabdomyolysis?
Rhabdomyolysis is a disease in which muscle cells are being destroyed and released into the circulation– specifically the urine, since muscle cells line the kidneys. Signs of rhabdomyolysis include dark brown or black urine, swelling of the hands and feet, rash that looks like a sunburn developing over pressure areas on your skin such as your elbows or shoulders. Icd 10 rhabdomyolysis can be particularly dangerous in people with a pre-existing kidney condition, since the muscle breakdown products can build up in the kidneys and cause damage.
For many years, rhabdomyolysis has been associated with crush injuries; for example, soldiers have suffered from it after being crushed by vehicles or buildings. However, there has been an increase in cases of rhabdomyolysis occurring spontaneously without any history of trauma – for instance, in dialysis patients who don’t receive enough fluids and develop hypovolemic (low volume) rhabdomyolysis . This form of the disease is called non-traumatic or exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis .
1. Causes of Rhabdomyolysis:
Normal exercise is not known to cause rhabdomyolysis. However, a number of people with kidney disease have been found with rhabdomyolysis in the setting of low fluid intake– so-called “non-traumatic” or “exercise-induced” rhabdomyolysis. The best evidence suggests that this form of the disease is associated with hypovolemic (low volume) shock; however, other causes have also been suggested including an electrolyte abnormality (for example, hypokalemia) or metabolic disorders such as diabetes .
2. Symptoms of Rhabdomyolysis:
The most common symptom of rhabdomyolysis is muscle pain, but since muscles are being destroyed, you may also have weakness, swelling and dark brown or tea-colored urine. Your urine output may increase since your kidneys are trying to flush out the muscle breakdown products. Since rhabdomyolysis can lead to kidney failure, it’s important to monitor the amount of urine that you produce and any changes in overall health. It’s also important to be aware that any underlying cause of rhabdomyolysis (however mild) can lead to more significant kidney damage.
3. Treatment of Rhabdomyolysis:
The goal of treatment is to prevent muscle breakdown products from damaging your kidneys. Most people are treated with fluid replacement, but kidney failure may require dialysis and (in rare cases) kidney transplant. People who have muscle breakdown due to hypocalcemia or prolonged immobilization should be treated as soon as possible. For mild or moderate rhabdomyolysis, your doctor may wait a few days before giving you additional fluids because he/she may want to see if your kidneys can handle the additional stress themselves.
4. Follow-up and monitoring:
Since severe rhabdomyolysis can lead to kidney damage, it’s important to have a test performed to evaluate the kidneys because of the potential for life-threatening complications. In addition, your doctor should monitor you for muscle weakness and increased thirst or urination. In most cases, rhabdomyolysis will go away on its own– but it may take some time.
5. Side effects and complications of Rhabdomyolysis:
Muscle breakdown products can be very harmful to the kidneys. In rare cases, kidney injury can lead to severe life-threatening complications known as rhabdomyolysis and renal failure . Kidney damage may also occur in people with other underlying health problems, such as diabetes and end-stage renal disease. Therefore, it’s important to have a test performed to evaluate the kidneys because of the potential for life-threatening complications.
6. Exercises and/or sports that cause Rhabdomyolysis:
When a person exercises regularly, the muscles in certain parts of his/her body might be more prone to fatigue, and thus muscle breakdown. However, it’s important to note that exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis is not a normal part of the training regimen for most people. In other words, the risk of rhabdomyolysis usually increases during times when one’s muscles are tired and therefore more vulnerable to breakdown. This includes activities like weightlifting, running, cycling and swimming.
7. Complications of Rhabdomyolysis:
The most serious complication of self-inflicted rhabdomyolysis is renal failure . However, the kidneys can also be damaged by renal clearance abnormalities due to elements such as hyperkalemia or hypokalemia . Therefore, chronic kidney failure should always be kept in mind when evaluating a possible cause of rhabdomyolysis. Other complications include muscle death, which may result in impaired ability to move the affected body part (for example, unable to walk or unable to hold up one’s arm); muscle contractions; and nerve damage or paralysis.
8. Treatment of Rhabdomyolysis:
In general, treatment involves giving fluids and medicines to prevent the breakdown products from damaging the kidneys. Medical management can prevent or reverse kidney failure and other complications. For example, people who develop rhabdomyolysis during a marathon or triathlon are given intravenous fluid to help avoid permanent damage to their kidneys. Other complications may include muscle death (which may result in impaired ability to move the affected body part); muscle contractions; and nerve damage or paralysis .